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  • 10,000-9,000 BC

    People start planting crop

  • 6,000 BC

    In Mesopotamia, Sumerians use yeast to make bear and wine

  • 5,000 BC

    Farming communities in existence

  • 4,000 BC

    Egyptians use yeast to make Bread

  • 4,000-1,6000 BC

    Farmer of Egypt & Americas saved seeds from plants that produced the best crop and planted them next year

  • 3,000-2,000 BC

    Peruvians selected potatoes (from around 160 wild species) with the lowest level of poisins & grow them for food

  • 1700-1720

    Thomas Fairchild creates Europe's first hybrid plant which was Dianthus.

  • 1750-1850

    European farmer increase cultivation of legumes (for nitrogen) and rotates crop to increase yields.

  • 1866

    Australian monk Gregor Mendel described how plant characteristics are passed from generation to generation.

  • 1870-1890

    Plant researchers crossbreed cotton to develop hundreads of new varieties with superior traits.

  • 1871-Early 1900

    Researcher Luther Burbank develop the Russet burbank potato and later develop several new hybrid.

  • 1908

    First U.S hybrid corn produce through self pollination.

  • 1919

    Word "Biotechnology" coined by Hungarian immigrant Karl Ereky.

  • 1928

    Impact of X-ray and radium on barley mutation described.

  • 1933

    Hybrid corn become available in U.S.

  • 1941

    Discovery that chemical can cause mutation.

  • 1944

    Discovery that DNA is a genetic molecule.

  • 1953

    Watson & Crick describe the double helix structure of DNA

  • 1950s/1960s

    Understanding of the structure of genes and how they work.

  • 1960s

    Work on creating high yields varieties of major grains resulting in Green Revolution in many countries.

  • 1973

    Cohen and Boyere successfully splice a gene from one organism and move it into another, staring modern Biotechnology era.

  • 1978

    Boyer's lab created a synthetic version of the human insulin gene.

  • 1982

    The first transgenic plant is produced -a tobacco plant resistance to an antibiotic.

  • 1985

    Field trials for biotech plant that are resistance to insect, viruses and bacteria are held in the U.S.

  • 1990

    Genetic modification used to make chymosin, an enzyme used in making hard cheese.

  • Early 1990s

    China first to put GM crop on sale, namely VR tobacco and a tomato.

  • 1994

    Transgenic FlavrSavr tomato is approved for sale in U.S.

  • 1995-1996

    Soyabeans and corn are approved for sale, and GM cotton is commercialized in the U.S.

  • 1996

    GM Tomato paste approved in the UK, GM herbicied tolerant soyabeans and insect protected maize approval in U.S.

  • 1999

    German & Swiss scientist develop golden rice.

  • 2000

    The first palnt genome is sequenced, Arabidopsis thaliana.

  • 2001

    U.S and Canada scientists develop a transgenic tomato that thrives in salty condition.

  • 2002

    The NCFAP found that GM Crop produced an additional 4 billion pounds of food and fiber on the same acreage.

    Commercial release of Bt cotton in India

  • 2004

    Farmer in 17 countries plant GM crop on 81.0 million hectares.

Contact Information

 
Gujarat State Biotechnology    Mission
Department of Science & Technology, Government of Gujarat, Udyog Bhavan, 11th Block, 9th Floor, Sector - 11 Gandhinagar - 382 017 Gujarat - INDIA
Phone: (+91) 079 23252197
Fax:
+917923252195
E-mail: info@biosafety.org.in

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